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Classification PPT

May 18, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Biology, Botany
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Pages 1-3

Scientists have discovered and named over ________________ different organisms, and the list continues to grow every day. ______________________ is a way of grouping things into categories based upon their characteristics.

The science of classifying all living things is called ________________. 

The way we classify organisms is based upon a system developed over 200 years ago by Carolus Linnaeus.

According to his system, organisms are placed into groups called _________. Linnaeus created 7 taxa: •

Kingdom • Phylum  Class • Order • Family  Genus  Species

(_________________)

(__________________)

A large number of organisms belong to the same kingdom. Fewer belong to the same phylum, and so on. 

Species is the smallest, most ________________category. Organisms of the same species are a group of genetically distinct organisms.

Two organisms in the same genus are quite similar because they diverged (came from) a recent common ancestor. However, some form of selection in the past caused them to separate into different groups or species.

American Black Bear

Grizzly Bear

Label the names of the missing taxa on the lines

Notice the diversity of the organisms that are in the same kingdom as the grizzly bear. • How many taxa do the fox & grizzly bear have in common? ____

 

If two organisms are in the same phylum, does that mean that they must be in the same class?_____ Which animal in this diagram is most closely related to the grizzly bear? _____________

As we learn more about the organisms around us, the definition for a species has changed over time.  If we have two organisms that look alike, how do we know if organisms are the same species? Scientists use several characteristics to determine this.

1. Have a similar shape/structure (morphology). Many species have great variation in their appearances. Some examples include:

2. Are able to mate AND produce fertile offspring. Two giraffes reproduce and give birth to a baby giraffe. Once the giraffe matures, it will reproduce and have babies of its own.

2. Are able to mate AND produce fertile offspring. A _________ & a donkey have a similar appearance and are both in the genus Equus. When a horse is mated with a donkey, their offspring is a mule. As it turns out, mules are sterile and can’t reproduce. That means that these two animals must be ____________ species.

3. The organisms must be a natural population. That means if the only time these animals might be found together is in captivity, they would not be the same species. 

________ & _________ belong to the genus Panthera.

These animals can also mate and produce offspring called a Liger or a Tigon (which are often sterile, meaning they too can’t produce offspring). 



Tigon = Tiger (male) x lion (female)

Liger = Lion (male) x Tiger (female)

While some common names refer only to one specific species (i.e. Lion and Walrus) …

… Other times a common name can refer to many different species (i.e. deer… there are 34 different species of deer).

These names were made up of the last two taxa: (____________ + ____________ )

Each species is given a unique scientific name. These names are in _______so they often sound unusual to us. The scientific name for humans is______________.

All humans are in the genus ________ and species name __________. Kingdom Animalia  Phylum Chordata  Class Mammali Order Primate  Family Hominidae  Genus Homo  Species sapiens.

1 – Based upon _____________ evidence, the classification of some organism had to be changed. We are more accurately able to tell how closely related organisms are by comparing their _________ or ______________. 2 – A larger taxa (classification group) was added to the system called _____________. Organisms are placed into one of three domains based upon the complexity of their cells prokaryotes = no nucleus eukaryotes = nucleus

Organisms in the same kingdom share several important characteristics such as cell structure or how they obtain and use energy (heterotrophs = eat autotrophs = make own food

Page 4

1. What is the scientific name of the grizzly bear? _______ _______ (refer to the chart on page 1 of your notes). 2. What language is used to give scientific names to all living things? __________ 3. What is the genus of the red maple if its scientific name is Acer rubrum? _________ 4. The largest group in the current system of classification is the __________ ; The ____________ is the smallest classification group.

5. Fill in the name of each missing taxonomic category on the right in the chart below: Taxon Kingdom

Class Family Species

Green Frog Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana clamitans

Mountain Lion Domestic Dog Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Carnivora Carnivora Felidae Canidae Felis Canis concolor familiaris

Human Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens

6. Which taxon (category) includes the most specific characteristics? ___________

7. Which taxon above includes a larger number of species, an order or a phylum? ______________ 8. What is the scientific name of the green frog? _____________________________

Taxon Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Green Frog Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana clamitans

Mountain Lion Domestic Dog Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Carnivora Carnivora Felidae Canidae Felis Canis concolor familiaris

Human Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens

6. Which taxon (category) includes the most specific characteristics? ___________

7. Which taxon above includes a larger number of species, an order or a phylum? ______________ 8. What is the scientific name of the green frog? _____________________________

Taxon Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Green Frog Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana clamitans

Mountain Lion Domestic Dog Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Carnivora Carnivora Felidae Canidae Felis Canis concolor familiaris

Human Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens

9. Which taxa do all four organisms have in common? _______________________

10. Which two organisms in the chart are the most closely related? _____________ & ___________________; How many taxa do they have in common? ____________ 11. Which animal is least closely related to the human? ____________________

Taxon Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Green Frog Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana clamitans

Mountain Lion Domestic Dog Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Carnivora Carnivora Felidae Canidae Felis Canis concolor familiaris

Human Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens

12. For two organisms to successfully mate (produce fertile offspring), they must be the same ____________________ 13. Which taxa is larger than a family, but smaller than a class? _________________ 14. Since all of these organisms are in the animal kingdom, what is the name of the domain that they are found in? _______________

1.

What do you call the study of how living things are classified?

2.

List the levels of classification starting from biggest to smallest.

3.

How many words are in every scientific name?

4.

What language are scientific names written in.

5.

Write the scientific name ACER RUBRUM in the correct format.

6.

What is the word Acer?

7.

What is the word rubrum?

8.

What are the 3 characteristics that organisms must have to be classified as the same species?

9.

What kingdom do humans belong in?

10.

When domain was added to the classification system, animals were put into a domain with 3 other kingdoms because they all have ____.

11.

What information can scientists now use to more accurately determine relatedness between individuals?

12.

Who is Carolus Linnaeus?

Page 5

Cladogram (Phylogenetic trees) are used to show how organisms & their ancestors evolved from one another. 





Organisms shown share a common ancestor (located at the bottom of the tree/branches). The simplest (most primitive) animals will be at the base of the chart. The most complex (or most highly evolved) will be at the top of the chart (farthest from the base).

1. Which animal is the most primitive? _____________________________ 2. Does the perch possess a lungs? _________________________________

3. What features are shared by the salamander & mouse? ___________________________________________________________

4. Why is the derived characteristic ‘feathers’ not written on the main axis like all of the other characteristics? ___________________________________________________________

5. Which animals on the cladogram have limbs? 6. Which animal on the cladogram is the most complex?

7. What characteristic(s) is/are listed for the sponges? 8. What characteristics are shared by the lizard & the earthworm?

Comparing the _________ and _______________ (which are made of amino acids) of different species provides strong evidence for evolution. Finding the number of differences in the genetic information between different species helps determine how closely related two organisms are.



In the cladogram on the left, the greater the evolutionary distance from humans, the greater the number of amino acid differences in the hemoglobin protein (polypeptide).

Page 7

Dichotomous

White Elm

English Oak No Pointed Five

Magnolia

Sweet Gum

Barnacle and Crab

Tiny Free Swimming Larva Latin Genus Species

Homo

sapiens Taxonomy

Have a similar shape/structure Be able to mate and produce fertile offspring

Must be a natural population

Archaea Bacteria Eukarya

Archaeabacteria Eubacteria Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Anamalia

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Family

Genus

Species

Order

Dichotomous

Vertebrae

Lizards, Birds and Mammals

View more...

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