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Chapter 2

January 4, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Sports Medicine
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Chapter 2 

CHINA  



Stressed Isolationism and a contemplative life Privileged class participated in wrestling, boxing and Kung Fu as early as 2698 B.C.

INDIA 

Governed by religious beliefs that stressed inner peace over physical activity.



EGYPTIANS 





Raised in a militaristic society and therefore saw the importance of physical fitness Fitness for everyone, not just the ruling class

ROMANS 



Stressed physical training to allow rulers to gain more land and riches Over time, professionalism was stressed and more people became spectators instead of participants



GREECE  Athens – Physical education experienced a “Golden Age”. Exemplified the mind-body spirit  Spartans – Very Militaristic  “Come home with your shield or on it”



Greek Physicians  Herodicus (480 BC) Nutrition  Hippocrates ( 460 – 377 BC) “First do no harm”  Galen (131 – 201 AD) –  First Sports Medicine Physician  Dissection and Rehab  Galen’s work inspired other physicians 

Held Olympics from 776 B.C. – 394 A.D.



Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476 used in a period of 1,000 years known as the Dark Ages; in which physical activity sport and fitness diminished because of political and economic chaos



RENAISSANCE 



Renewed interest in learning, doing, recreation and fitness. Also renewed interest in expanding and exploring

A MORE MODERN TIME 

YMCA began in England in 1844 and was devoted to character and physical education

 



1844-1884 In1866 first legislation passed in California requiring physical ed. In the schools 1875 Intercollegiate Association was formed

Intercollegiate Conference 1895 



Faculty Representatives formed (eventually became the Big 10 Conference) What happened to make sports standardized or institutionalized?    



Rules became standard Bodies are formed to enforce rules Standards of competition are set Sport is promoted for participants as well as spectators Championships are formed

Chapter 2  

Emerging Profession 1885-1930

Birth of a Profession 



Gymnasium was the center of ancient Greek education and culture Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476 used in a period of 1,000 years known as the Dark Ages; in which physical activity sport and fitness diminished because of political and economic chaos

Battle of the Systems 



Period of 1885-1900: marked competition among several approaches of what was called “gymnastics” Marked a period when immigrants brought their own approaches and loyalties

German System (Fredrick Jahn) 







Balanced academics with physical education Developed Turnplatz Strict gymnastic programs but did incorporate track and field event Important student leaders: Beck,Follen,and Leiber

Swedish System Henrick Ling   



Interest in anatomy and physiology Scientific-Therapeutic An understudy(Nissen) furthered the system by befriending Mary Hemenway Father of Physical Therapy

Beecher System   

System developed for women Developed grace and fitness Incorporated music in the workouts

Dio Lewis System 



 

Used components from German, Sweeden and Beecher Use of music-incorporated flexibility Focused on the value of wt. training Published the first journal in P.E.Gymnastic Monthly and Journal of Physical Culture

Hitchcock System ( 1861) 





Scientific emphasis, based on measurement System was designed around a battery of test Ladders,weights, jumping rope and climbing

Sargent System-Teacher Based 



Also based on measurements but used them for exercise prescription Designed exercise machines to enhance various physical characteristics

The Boston Conference 1889 



 

Battle of the systems-hosted by Mary Hemenway Gave credibility to the field of Physical Education The American System was created Sport was not a major topic of this conference

Important Leaders 





Luther Gulick-Helped form the Playground Association of America Rosiland Cassidy- Worked with Kinesiology Delphine Hanna-developed the nations first teacher-preparation program in p.e.

Cont. 





Edward Thorndike-Psychologist; believed children were not just small adults John Dewey-Education leader who supported Heatherington’s theories FORMALIZATION WAS OUT-Natural play was in

Leaders of the 1900’s 





Thomas Wood-Education through the physical Organic, Psychomotor, Social Development, and Mental Development Placed more emphasis on games and game skills-Natural Gymnastics

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